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The effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention in pre-schoolers with motor problems depends on gender but not environmental context
Farid Bardid a,1,*, Frederik J.A. Deconinck a,b,1, Sofie Descamps a, Liesbeth Verhoeven c, Greet De Pooter c, Matthieu Lenoir a, Eva D’Hondt a,d a Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium b School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK c Department of Teacher Education, Karel de Grote Hogeschool, Belgium d Faculty of Physical Education, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs•
Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.
The effects of the Primary Movement programme
on the academic performance of children attending
ordinary primary school
Queen’s University, Belfast, Northern Ireland
The present study investigated the prevalence of a
primary reflex (the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex)
in children attending ordinary primary school and
how this related to attainments in a number of
academic areas. The effectiveness of a specific
movement intervention programme in reducing
primary reflex persistence and improving academic
attainment was also evaluated.
A comparative study of the progress of 683 children
over a two-year period from Years 3 and 5, who
completed an intervention programme known as
Primary Movement, was carried out using the
relative attainments of children at the same schools
and standardised scores as baseline and follow-up
measures. A second, quasi-experimental study
followed the progress of four parallel groups in each
of two large schools with the experimental side
completing the movement intervention programme
while the other side acted as the control.
It was found that ATNR persistence was significantly
associated with level of attainments in reading,
spelling and mathematics and that boys were more
at risk than girls for ATNR persistence. In both
studies, it was found that the movement intervention
programme had a very significant impact on
reducing the levels of ATNR persistence in children
and that this was associated with very significant
improvements in reading and mathematics, in
This research provides further evidence of a link
between the attainment of core educational skills
and the interference that may result from an
underlying developmental deficit. The effectiveness
of the intervention programme in reducing ATNR
persistence and in increasing academic attainments
suggests that this programme could be used to
complement other strategies that have been shown
to have a positive effect on children’s learning.
Are effects of the symmetric and asymmetric tonic neck reflexes still visible in healthy adults?
S.M. Bruijna,b,∗, F. Massaada, M.J. MacLellanc, L. Van Gestela, Y.P. Ivanenkoc, J. Duysensa,d
a Motor Control Laboratory, Research Center for Movement Control and Neuroplasticity, Department of Kinesiology, K.U. Leuven, Belgiumb Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China
c Neuromotor Physiology Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy
d Department of Research, Development and Education, Sint Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Trunk rotation due to persistence of primitive reflexes in early school-age children
Ewa Z. GieysztorA–D,F, Ludwika SadowskaA,E,F, Anna M. ChoińskaA,E,F, Małgorzata Paprocka-BorowiczE,F
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Received 16 December 2015, Revised 26 January 2017, Accepted 26 January 2017, Available online 20 February 2017
To propose a phylogenetic significance to the Moro reflex which remains unexplained since its publication in 1918 because both hands are free at the end of the gesture.
Among the 75 videos of healthy term newborns we have filmed in a research project on antenatal education to parenthood, we describe a sequence that clearly showed the successive movements of the Moro reflex and we report the occurrence of this reflex in the videos that were recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant.
This paper proposes for the first time a phylogenetic significance to the Moro reflex: a ritualized behavior of nonverbal communication. Professionals should avoid stimulating the newborns’ fear system by unnecessarily triggering Moro reflexes. Antenatal education should teach parents to respond to the Moro reflexes of their newborn infant by picking her up in their arms with mother talk.
Ewa Z. Gieysztor1, Anna M. Choińska2, Małgorzata Paprocka-Borow
Rehabilitation Developmental Laboratory, Department of Physiotherapy,
Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland
2 Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University
of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland
Submitted: 14 September 2015
Accepted: 24 December 2015
A b s t r a c t
Introduction: Retained primitive reflexes can disturb natural development
and involve difficulties in social and educational children’s life. They can
also impact on psychomotor development. Mature responses in a child’s
psychomotor progress can only occur if the central nervous system itself
has reached maturity. The process consist the transition made from brain
stem reflex response to cortically controlled response. This study define the
occurrence of primitive reflexes in healthy 4–6 years old children and analyze
the impact of survived primitive reflexes on psychomotor development.
Material and methods: The study involved 35 participants aged 4–6 years
healthy preschool children. The study tools were: primitive reflexes tests by
Sally Goddard for children and Motor Proficiency – Test (MOT 4–6 test) in
Results: Over a half (65%) preschool children had survived the primitive
reflexes on the residual level. Eleven percent of them had no retained primitive
reflexes. According to the psychomotor ability, 9% of the children were
in the category of “altered development”, 29% in “delayed development”,
59% in “normal” and 3% in “very good development”. The greater the severity
of the reflex, the motor efficiency was lower (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: It seems reasonable to introduce reflexes integration therapy
in children’s with low psychomotor skills. Primitive reflexes routinely tested,
can contribute to improved early psychomotor development in children with
needs, thus preventing many difficulties which children can encounter within
their social and school life.